18. Goldman Sachs 2016 ($5,060 million)

In a coordinated settlement with the US DOJ and state attorneys general, Goldman Sachs agreed to pay more than US$5 billion to resolve allegations that it misled investors over residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) in the lead-up to the 2008 financial crisis. The bank was the sixth major financial institution to settle RMBS mis-selling allegations with federal and state authorities in the US. Similar agreements had been reached with JPMorgan, Bank of America, Citibank and Morgan Stanley.

Get unlimited access to all Global Investigations Review content