18. Goldman Sachs 2016 ($5,060 million)

In a coordinated settlement with the US DOJ and state attorneys general, Goldman Sachs agreed to pay more than US$5 billion to resolve allegations that it misled investors over residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) in the lead-up to the 2008 financial crisis. The bank was the sixth major financial institution to settle RMBS mis-selling allegations with federal and state authorities in the US. Similar agreements had been reached with JPMorgan, Bank of America, Citibank and Morgan Stanley.

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