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The history of the global investigation
Over the past decade, the number and profile of multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional regulatory and criminal investigations have risen exponentially. Naturally, this global phenomenon exposes corporations and their employees to greater risk of potentially hostile encounters with foreign law enforcement authorities and regulators than ever before. This is partly owing to the continued globalisation of commerce, as well as the increasing enthusiasm of some prosecutors to use expansive theories of corporate criminal liability to extract exorbitant penalties against corporations as a deterrent, and public pressure to hold individuals accountable for the misconduct. The globalisation of corporate law enforcement, of course, has also spawned greater coordination between law enforcement agencies domestically and across borders. As a result, the pace and complexity of cross-border corporate investigations has markedly increased and created an environment in which the potential consequences, both direct and collateral, for individuals and businesses are of unprecedented magnitude.
To aid practitioners faced with the myriad and often unexpected challenges of navigating a cross-border investigation, this book brings together for the first time the perspectives of leading experts from across the globe.
The chapters that follow in Part I of the guide cover in depth the broad spectrum of the law, practice and procedure applicable to cross-border investigations in both the United Kingdom and United States. Part I tracks the development of a serious allegation (whether originating from an internal or external source) through its stages of development, considering the key risks and challenges as matters progress; it provides expert insight into the fact-gathering stage, document preservation and collection, witness interviews, and the complexities of cross-border privilege issues; and it discusses strategies to successfully resolve cross-border probes and manage corporate reputation throughout an investigation.
In Part II of the book, local experts from 12 national jurisdictions respond to a common set of questions designed to identify the local nuances of law and practice that practitioners may encounter in responding to a cross-border investigation. We look forward to updating and expanding both parts of the book in future editions as the law and practice continues to evolve in this emerging field. The Practitioner’s Guide to Global Investigations has been designed for external and in-house legal counsel; compliance officers and accounting practitioners who wish to benchmark their own practice against that of leaders in the fields; and prosecutors, regulators and advisers operating in this complex environment.
The Editors gratefully acknowledge the insightful contributions of the following lawyers from Clifford Chance: Chris Stott, Zoe Osborne and Oliver Pegden in London; Megan Farrell, Jayla Jones, Delphine Miller, Amy Montour and Mary Jane Yoon in New York; and Hena Schommer and Michelle Williams in Washington, DC.
The Editors would also especially like to thank Clifford Chance lawyers Tara McGrath (who went above and beyond to bring this book together) and Kaitlyn Ferguson for their significant contributions.
Judith Seddon, Eleanor Davison, Christopher J Morvillo, Michael Bowes QC, Luke Tolaini
London and New York