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Corporate monitorships are an increasingly important tool in the arsenal of law enforcement authorities and, given their widespread use, they appear to have staying power. This guide will help both the experienced and the uninitiated to understand this increasingly important area of legal practice. It is organised into five parts, each of which contains chapters on a particular theme, category or issue.

Part I offers an overview of monitorships. First, Neil M Barofsky – former Assistant US Attorney and Special Inspector General for the Troubled Asset Relief Program, who has served as an independent monitor and runs the monitorship practice at Jenner & Block LLP – and his co-authors Matthew D Cipolla and Erin R Schrantz of Jenner & Block LLP explain how a monitor can approach and remedy a broken corporate culture. They consider several critical questions, such as how a monitor can discover a broken culture; how a monitor can apply ‘carrot and stick’ and other approaches to address a culture of non-compliance; and the sorts of internal partnership and external pressures that can be brought to bear. Next, former Associate Attorney General Tom Perrelli, independent monitor for Citigroup Inc and the Education Management Corporation, walks through the life cycle of a monitorship, including the process of formulating a monitorship agreement and engagement letter, developing a work plan, building a monitorship team, and creating and publishing first and final reports. Next, Bart M Schwartz of Guidepost Solutions LLC – former chief of the Criminal Division in the Southern District of New York, who later served as independent monitor for General Motors – explores how enforcement agencies decide whether to appoint a monitor and how that monitor is selected. Schwartz provides an overview of different types of monitorships, the various agencies that have appointed monitors in the past, and the various considerations that go into reaching the decisions to use and select a monitor. Finally, Pamela Davis and her co-authors, Suzanne Jaffe Bloom and Mariana Pendás Fernández at Winston & Strawn, explain how a successful monitorship must consider the goals and perspectives of a variety of different constituencies; chief among a monitor’s goals should be securing the trust of both the government and the organisation.

Part II contains three chapters that offer experts’ perspectives on monitorships. Professor Mihailis E Diamantis of the University of Iowa provides an academic perspective, describing the unique criminal justice advantages and vulnerabilities of monitorships, and the implications that the appointment of a monitor could have for other types of criminal sanctions. Jeffrey A Taylor, a former US Attorney for the District of Columbia and chief compliance officer of General Motors, who is now executive vice president and chief litigation counsel of Fox Corporation, provides an in-house perspective, examining what issues a company must confront when faced with a monitor, and suggesting strategies that corporations can follow to navigate a monitorship. Finally, Loren Friedman, Thomas Cooper and Nicole Sliger of BDO USA provide insights as forensic professionals by exploring the testing methodologies and metrics used by monitorship teams.

The five chapters in Part III examine the issues that arise in the context of cross-border monitorships and the unique characteristics of monitorships in different areas of the world. Gil Soffer, former Associate Deputy Attorney General, former federal prosecutor and a principal drafter of the Morford Memorandum, and his co-author Johnjerica Hodge – both at Katten Muchin Rosenman LLP – consider the myriad issues that arise when a US regulator imposes a cross-border monitorship, examining issues of conflicting privacy and banking laws, the potential for culture clashes, and various other diplomatic and policy issues that corporations and monitors must face in an international context. Nicholas Goldin and Joshua Levine, of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett – both former prosecutors with extensive experience in conducting investigations across the globe – examine the unique challenges of monitorships arising under the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). By their nature, FCPA monitorships involve US laws that regulate conduct carried out abroad, and so Goldin and Stein examine the difficulties that may arise from this situation, including potential cultural differences that may affect the relationship between the monitor and the company. Next, Switzerland-based investigators Simone Nadelhofer, Daniel Bühr and their co-authors, at LALIVE SA, explore the Swiss financial regulatory body’s use of monitors. Judith Seddon, an experienced white-collar solicitor in the United Kingdom, and her co-author at Ropes & Gray International LLP, explore how UK monitorships differ from those in the United States. And litigator Jason Kang and former federal prosecutors Wade Weems, Daniel Lee and Scott Hulsey, at Kobre & Kim, examine the treatment of monitorships in the East Asia region.

Part IV has 10 chapters that provide subject-matter and sector-specific analyses of different kinds of monitorships. Frances McLeod and her co-authors at Forensic Risk Alliance explore the role of forensic firms in monitorships, examining how these firms can use data analytics and transaction testing to identify relevant issues and risk in a monitored financial institution. Additionally, Rachel Wolkinson and Ashley Baynham, at Brown Rudnick LLP, explore how monitorships are used in resolutions with the SEC. Next, with their co-authors at Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, former Deputy Attorney General David Ogden and former US Attorney for the District of Columbia Ron Machen, co-monitors in a healthcare fraud monitorship led by the US Department of Justice (US DOJ), explore the appointment of monitors in cases alleging violations of healthcare law. Günter Degitz and Richard Kando of AlixPartners, both former monitors in the financial services industry, examine the use of monitorships in that field. Michael J Bresnick of Venable LLP, who served as independent monitor of the residential mortgage-backed securities consumer relief settlement with Deutsche Bank AG, examines consumer-relief fund monitorships. With his co-authors at Kirkland & Ellis LLP, former US District Court Judge, Deputy Attorney General and Acting Attorney General Mark Filip, who returned to private practice and represented BP in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion and the company’s subsequent monitorship, explores issues unique to environmental and energy monitorships. Glen McGorty, a former federal prosecutor who now serves as the monitor of the New York City District Council of Carpenters and related Taft-Hartley benefit funds, and Lisa Umans of Crowell & Moring LLP lend their perspectives to an examination of union monitorships. Ellen S Zimiles, Patrick J McArdle and their co-authors at Guidehouse explore the legal and historical context of sanctions monitorships. Jodi Avergun, a former chief of the Narcotic and Dangerous Drug Section of the US DOJ and former Chief of Staff for the US Drug Enforcement Administration, former federal prosecutor Todd Blanche and Christian Larson, of Cadwalader Wickersham & Taft LLP, discuss the complexities of monitorships within the pharmaceutical industry. And Kevin Abikoff, Laura Perkins and Michael DeBernardis at Hughes Hubbard & Reed explain the phenomenon of monitorships being imposed as part of the sanctions systems at the World Bank and other multilateral development banks.

Finally, Part V contains three chapters discussing key issues that arise in connection with monitorships. McKool Smith’s Daniel W Levy, a former federal prosecutor who has been appointed to monitor an international financial institution, and Doreen Klein, a former New York County District Attorney, consider the complex issues of privilege and confidentiality surrounding monitorships. Among other things, Levy and Klein examine case law that balances the recognised interests in monitorship confidentiality against other considerations, such as the First Amendment. Roscoe C Howard, Jr, a former US Attorney for the District of Columbia, and Tabitha Meier at Barnes & Thornburg LLP, with and Nicole Sliger and Pei Li Wong at BDO USA LLP, next examine situations in which an entity is subject to multiple settlement agreements or probation orders with different government agencies or oversight entities, which is referred to as ‘concurrent monitorship’. And, finally, former US District Court Judge John Gleeson, now of Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, provides incisive commentary on judicial scrutiny of deferred prosecution agreements (DPAs) and monitorships. Gleeson surveys the law surrounding DPAs and monitorships, including the role and authority of judges in those respects, and separation-of-powers issues.


The editors gratefully acknowledge Jenner & Block LLP for its support of this publication, and Jessica Ring Amunson, co-chair of Jenner’s appellate and Supreme Court practice, and Jenner associates Tessa J G Roberts, Matthew T Gordon and Tiffany Lindom for their important assistance.

Anthony S Barkow, Neil M Barofsky and Thomas J Perrelli
April 2022
New York and Washington, DC

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