The history of the global investigation
Over the past decade, the number and profile of multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional regulatory and criminal investigations have risen exponentially. Naturally, this global phenomenon exposes corporations and their employees to greater risk of potentially hostile encounters with foreign law enforcement authorities and regulators than ever before. This is partly owing to the continued globalisation of commerce, as well as the increasing enthusiasm of some prosecutors to use expansive theories of corporate criminal liability to extract exorbitant penalties against corporations as a deterrent, and public pressure to hold individuals accountable for the misconduct. The globalisation of corporate law enforcement, of course, has also spawned greater coordination between law enforcement agencies domestically and across borders. As a result, the pace and complexity of cross-border corporate investigations has markedly increased and created an environment in which the potential consequences, both direct and collateral, for individuals and businesses are of unprecedented magnitude.
To aid practitioners faced with the myriad and often unexpected challenges of navigating a cross-border investigation, this book brings together for the first time the perspectives of leading experts from across the globe.
The chapters that follow in Volume I of the Guide cover in depth the broad spectrum of the law, practice and procedure applicable to cross-border investigations in both the United Kingdom and United States. Volume I tracks the development of a serious allegation (whether originating from an internal or external source) through its stages of development, considering the key risks and challenges as matters progress; it provides expert insight into the fact-gathering stage, document preservation and collection, witness interviews, and the complexities of cross-border privilege issues; and it discusses strategies to successfully resolve cross-border probes and manage corporate reputation throughout an investigation.
In Volume II, local experts from national jurisdictions respond to a common set of questions designed to identify the local nuances of law and practice that practitioners may encounter in responding to a cross-border investigation.
In the first edition we signalled our intention to update and expand both parts of the book as the law and practice evolved. The Guide continues to expand and extend its reach, in both substantive and jurisdictional terms. For this hardback edition, it has even outgrown its original single-book format; the two original parts of the Guide now have separate covers, although the hard copy of the Guide should still be viewed - and used - as a single reference work. All chapters are, of course, made available online and in other digital formats.
In this third edition, we have revised extant chapters to reflect recent developments. Following the global trend of data privacy law considerations becoming weightier in corporate and government investigations - not least after the EU General Data Protection Regulation became directly applicable in all Member States - we have added a chapter on data protection for Volume I, and we have expanded the scope and number data protection questions in Volume II.
In the United Kingdom, an eagerly awaited Court of Appeal reversal has clarified English law on legal privilege, although it remains out of step with other common law jurisdictions in this regard. In the United States, the Department of Justice modified and permanently adopted its enhanced enforcement FCPA Pilot Program, in the form of the Corporate Enforcement Policy, offering a presumption of significant co-operation credit for companies that self-report, remediate and co-operate. In both the United States and the United Kingdom, the enforcement agencies have experienced significant turnover in senior staff, which will no doubt influence enforcement priorities and activity.
Volume II now covers 21 jurisdictions, including Australia, Canada and Mexico, and we expect subsequent editions to have an even broader jurisdictional scope. As corporate investigations and enforcer co-operation crosses more borders - witness the recent Petrobras, Rolls-Royce and Keppel Offshore international, 'global' settlements - we anticipate Volume II will become an increasingly valuable resource for our readers: the external and in-house legal counsel; compliance officers and accounting practitioners; and prosecutors, regulators and advisers operating in this complex environment.
Finally, The Practitioner's Guide to Global Investigations has welcomed Ama A Adams and Tara McGrath to the team of eminent editors who have reviewed the content for this edition.
The Editors gratefully acknowledge the insightful contributions of the following lawyers from Clifford Chance: Zoe Osborne and Oliver Pegden in London, Amy Montour and Mary Jane Yoon in New York, and Hena Schommer and Michelle Williams in Washington, DC. The Editors would also especially like to thank Clifford Chance associate Kaitlyn Ferguson in Washington, DC, and Chris Stott, senior attorney at Ropes & Gray in London.
Judith Seddon, Eleanor Davison, Christopher J Morvillo, Michael Bowes QC,
Luke Tolaini, Ama A Adams, Tara McGrath
London, New York and Washington, DC